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Massed vs. Distributed Learning


Bird, S. (2010). Effects of distributed practice on the acquisition of L2 English syntax. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 635-650

Bloom, K.C., & Shuell, T.J. (1981). Effects of massed and distributed practice on the learning and retention of second-language vocabulary. The Journal of Experimental Research, 74, 245-248.

Cepeda, N.J., Mozer, M.C., Coburn, N., Rohrer, D., Wixted, J.T., & Pashler, H. (2009). Optimizing distributed practice: theoretical analysis and practical implications. Experimental Psychology, 56, 236–246.

Collins, L., & White, J. (2011). An Intensive Look at Intensity and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly, 45(1), 106-133.

Collins, L., Halter, R. H., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1999). Time and the distribution of time in second language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 655–680. 

Küpper-Tetzel, C. E., & Erdfelder, E. (2012). Encoding, maintenance, and retrieval processes in the lag effect: a multinomial processing tree analysis. Memory, 20, 37–47. 

Küpper-Tetzel, C. E., Erdfelder, E., & Dickhäuser, O. (2014). The lag effect in secondary school classrooms: Enhancing students’ memory for vocabulary. Instructional Science, 42, 373–388.







Miles, S.W. (2010). Good timing: The spacing effect and grammar acquisition. English Teaching, 65, 131-150.

Miles, S.W. (2014). Spaced vs. massed distribution instruction for L2 grammar learning. System, 42, 412-428.

Nakata, T. (in press). Effects of expanding and equal spacing on second language vocabulary learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.

Rogers, J. (2015). Learning L2 syntax under massed and distributed conditions. TESOL Quarterly, 49, 857-866.

Rohrer, D. (2015). Student instruction should be distributed over long time periods. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 635-643.

Schuetze, U. (2015). Spacing techniques in second language vocabulary acquisition: Short-term gains vs. long-term memory. Language Teaching Research, 19, 28-42.

Serrano, R. (2011). The time factor in EFL practice. Language Learning, 61, 117-145.

Serrano, R. (2012). Is Intensive Learning Effective? Reflecting on the Results from Cognitive Psychology and the Second Language Acquisition Literature. In C. Muñoz (Ed.), Intensive Exposure Experiences in Second Language Learning (pp. 3-22). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Serrano, R.; Muñoz, C. (2007). Same hours, different time distribution: Any difference in EFL? System 35, 305-321.

Serrano, R., Stengers, H., & Housen, A. (2015). Acquisition of formulaic sequences in intensive and regular EFL programmes. Language Teaching Research, 19, 89-106.

Suzuki, Y., & DeKeyser, R. (in press). Effects of distributed practice on the proceduralization of morphology. Language Teaching Research.

Year, J. 2009. Korean speakers' acquisition of the English ditransitive construction: The role of input frequency and repetition. Unpublished dissertation. Teacher's College, Columbia University.



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